Les Ruminants

Title: Les Ruminants
Translated Title: 
Here is the head and neck of a sheep. Observe the upper and lower mandible. The upper mandible only has molars. The lower mandible has both molars and incisors. Incisors (lower mandible) viewed from below. How many of them do you count? The same incisors viewed from above. Take note of their cutting edge. Without raising its head, the sheep can swallow the grass without chewing it. 1. Here is the digestive tract of the steer: esophagus, the large stomach, the long intestine. 2. The trachea..[missing text]...the lungs. The steer goes to eat. He breathes: the air comes in through the nasal canal, passes through the trachea and arrives in the lungs. He tears up the grass, making a ball that he then swallows. Take note of how the trachea closes. The balls of grass descend to the rumen. When the rumen is full the steer ruminates. Take note of the lateral movement of his lower mandible. As he ruminates the balls of grass return one by one to the mounth; they are ground by the molars. Here are the molars viewed from the side...viewed from above. Observe the crescent shape of their ridges. It's between the ridges of the molars of the two mandibles that the grass is crushed. (Lateral movement of the lower mandible). Reduced to mush, the grass travels through the esophagus, through the reticulum, the omasum, the abomasum, and into the intestines. Ruminants are made for racing. Long legs...ending in two digits surrounded by a nail: the hoofs. Here is a skeleton of the foot of a ruminant. Tarsus: many small bones. Metatarsus: two fused bones. Two digits (phalanges)...[missing text]...two hooves. Ruminants transform grass into skin, flesh, bones, fat, wool...milk. We use their strength for agricultural work. THE END.