Latin American Monarchical Orders

Although all Latin American governments today are republics, the region produced three empires in the nineteenth century: Brazil, Haiti, and Mexico.

Brazil

When the Portuguese royal family returned to Portugal in 1821 after self-imposed exile in Brazil during the Napoleonic wars, one of the king’s sons remained as regent. Pedro I (r. 1822–1831) declared independence in 1822 and was crowned emperor shortly thereafter. His son Pedro II (r. 1831–1889) was Brazil’s second and last emperor, forced to abdicate by a military coup. Pedro I retained the ancient Portuguese religious military orders (Christ, Avis, and the Cross), although he never assumed the title of grand master. He instituted two new ones: the Order of Pedro I and the Order of the Rose.

Brazil, Pedro II, Certificate of Receipt of the Award of Officer of the Order of the Rose to Louis Clémenceau de St. Julien, by the Légion d’Honneur, 1874
Brazil, Pedro II, Certificate of Award of the Grand Cross of the Order of Christ to Count Gustav Siegmund Kalnoky de Körös Patak, Austro-Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1884
Brazil, Imperial Order of Christ, Grand Cross set (Br57)
Brazil, Imperial Order of Christ, Commander (Br57)
Brazil, Imperial Order of Christ, Knight (Br57)
Brazil, Imperial Order of Christ, Miniature (Br57)
Brazil, Imperial Order of São Bento de Avis, Commander Star (Br58)
Brazil, Imperial Order of São Bento de Avis, Knight Miniature (Br58)
Brazil, Imperial Order of the Cross, Grand Cross set (Br60 )
Brazil, Imperial Order of the Cross, Knight (Br60 )
Brazil, Imperial Order of the Rose, Grand Cross set (Br62)
Brazil, Imperial Order of the Rose, Grand Cross star (Br62)
Brazil, Imperial Order of the Rose, Knight (gold) (Br62)
Brazil, Imperial Order of the Rose, Knight (silver) (Br62)
Brazil, Pedro II, Certificate of Award of Officer of the Order of the Rose to Louis Clémenceau de St. Julien, Directeur de l’Octroi de Paris, Président du Conseil d’Administration, 1874
Haiti

Faustin-Élie Soulouque (c. 1782–1867), born a slave in Haiti, participated in the revolt that expelled the French from that country in 1803. He was named president in 1847, proclaimed himself emperor in 1849, and ruled for ten years. Faustin I tried unsuccessfully to create a Haitian nobility with traditional royal titles, but he did institute four monarchical orders designed to promote loyalty to himself within the country’s military and elite families. These orders are extremely rare.

Haiti, Civil Order of the Legion of Honor, Grand Cross set with (paste) diamonds (Ha8)
Haiti, Order of Saint Anne, Commander (Ha10)
Haiti, Imperial and Military Order of Saint Faustin, Grand Cross set (Ha7)
Haiti, Imperial and Military Order of Saint Faustin, Knight (Ha7)
Mexico

Mexico’s first president, Agustín de Iturbide (1783–1824) , proclaimed himself emperor in 1822 after he failed to attract European royalty into accepting the Mexican throne. He was removed from office after one year. Iturbide instituted one order, the Order of Our Lady of Guadalupe, which was rescinded after he was deposed.In 1864, to aid his imperial ambitions and the conservative Mexicans who wished to overturn the liberal government of President Benito Juárez (1806–1872), Napoleon III (1808–1873) of France installed a Hapsburg prince, Maximilian (1832–1867), as emperor of Mexico. Maximilian recreated the Order of Our Lady of Guadalupe and created two new orders: the Order of the Mexican Eagle and the Imperial Order of Saint Charles, which was awarded to women. Following the withdrawal of the French army from Mexico and the return of Juárez, Maximilian was captured and executed in 1867. The three orders he instituted ceased to exist.

Mexico, Silver Medal for the Inauguration of Iturbide, 1820 (RLR)
Mexico, Gold Medal for the Refoundation of the Order of Our Lady of Guadalupe, 1865 (RLR)
Mexico, Order of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Grand Cross star (Mx122)
Mexico, Order of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Knight Military (Mx122)
Mexico, Order of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Knight Civil (Mx122)
Mexico, Medal of Military Merit, 1st Class, 2nd Class with crown (Mx81d)
Mexico, Order of the Mexican Eagle, Grand Cross set (Mx123)
Mexico, Imperial Order of San Carlos, 1st Grade (Mx124)